Extrahepatic perfusion and incomplete hepatic perfusion after hepatic arterial infusion pump implantation: incidence and clinical implications

Dutch HAIP consortium

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Introduction: This study investigates the incidence of extrahepatic perfusion and incomplete hepatic perfusion at intraoperative methylene blue testing and on postoperative nuclear imaging in patients undergoing hepatic arterial infusion pump (HAIP) chemotherapy. Methods: The first 150 consecutive patients who underwent pump implantation in the Netherlands were included. All patients underwent surgical pump implantation with the catheter in the gastroduodenal artery. All patients underwent intraoperative methylene blue testing and postoperative nuclear imaging (99mTc-Macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT) to determine perfusion via the pump. Results: Patients were included between January-2018 and December-2021 across eight centers. During methylene blue testing, 29.3% had extrahepatic perfusion, all successfully managed intraoperatively. On nuclear imaging, no clinically relevant extrahepatic perfusion was detected (0%, 95%CI: 0.0–2.5%). During methylene blue testing, 2.0% had unresolved incomplete hepatic perfusion. On postoperative nuclear imaging, 8.1% had incomplete hepatic perfusion, leading to embolization in only 1.3%. Conclusion: Methylene blue testing during pump placement for intra-arterial chemotherapy identified extrahepatic perfusion in 29.3% of patients, but could be resolved intraoperatively in all patients. Postoperative nuclear imaging found no clinically relevant extrahepatic perfusion and led to embolization in only 1.3% of patients. The role of routine nuclear imaging after HAIP implantation should be studied in a larger cohort.
Original languageEnglish
Early online date2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024

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