From Carbon-11-Labeled Amino Acids to Peptides in Positron Emission Tomography: the Synthesis and Clinical Application

Aleksandra Pekošak, Ulrike Filp, Alex J. Poot, Albert D. Windhorst

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Radiolabeled amino acids, their derivatives and peptides have a broad scope of application and can be used as receptor ligands, as well as enzyme substrates for many different diseases as radiopharmaceutical tracers. Over the past few decades, the application of molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) has gained considerable importance and significance in diagnosis in today’s advanced health care. Next to that, the availability of cyclotrons and state-of-the-art radiochemistry facilities has progressed the production of imaging agents enabling the preparation of many versatile PET radiotracers. Due to many favorable characteristics of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides, they can be used for tumor staging and monitoring the progress of therapy success, while aromatic amino acids can be employed as PET tracer to study neurological disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of radiosynthetic and enzymatic approaches towards carbon-11 amino acids, their analogues and peptides, with focus on stereoselective reactions, and reflects upon their clinical application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)510-532
Number of pages23
JournalMolecular Imaging and Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018


  • Amino acid
  • Carbon-11
  • PET imaging
  • Peptide
  • Radiolabeling

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