Full Skin Equivalent Models for Simulation of Burn Wound Healing, Exploring Skin Regeneration and Cytokine Response

Patrick P. G. Mulder, Rajiv S. Raktoe, Marcel Vlig, Anouk Elgersma, Esther Middelkoop, Bouke K. H. L. Boekema

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Healing of burn injury is a complex process that often leads to the development of functional and aesthetic complications. To study skin regeneration in more detail, organotypic skin models, such as full skin equivalents (FSEs) generated from dermal matrices, can be used. Here, FSEs were generated using de-epidermalized dermis (DED) and collagen matrices MatriDerm? and Mucomaix?. Our aim was to validate the MatriDerm- and Mucomaix-based FSEs for the use as in vitro models of wound healing. Therefore, we first characterized the FSEs in terms of skin development and cell proliferation. Proper dermal and epidermal morphogenesis was established in all FSEs and was comparable to ex vivo human skin models. Extension of culture time improved the organization of the epidermal layers and the basement membrane in MatriDerm-based FSE but resulted in rapid degradation of the Mucomaix-based FSE. After applying a standardized burn injury to the models, re-epithelization occurred in the DED- and MatriDerm-based FSEs at 2 weeks after injury, similar to ex vivo human skin. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in the culture media of all models, but no significant differences were observed between models. We anticipate that these animal-free in vitro models can facilitate research on skin regeneration and can be used to test therapeutic interventions in a preclinical setting to improve wound healing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number29
JournalJournal of Functional Biomaterials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • burn injury
  • cytokine response
  • fibroblasts
  • in vitro model
  • keratinocytes
  • skin morphogenesis
  • tissue engineering
  • wound repair

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