Gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy via inertial and magnetic sensors

Josien C. Van Den Noort, Alberto Ferrari, Andrea G. Cutti, Jules G. Becher, Jaap Harlaar

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


3D kinematic measurements in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to assess gait deviations can only be performed in gait laboratories using optoelectronic systems. Alternatively, an inertial and magnetic measurement system (IMMS) can be applied for ambulatory motion-tracking. A protocol named Outwalk has recently been developed to measure the 3D kinematics during gait with IMMS. This study preliminary validated the application of IMMS, based on the Outwalk protocol, in gait analysis of six children with CP and one typically developing child. Reference joint kinematics were simultaneously obtained from a laboratory-based system and protocol. On average, the root mean square error (RMSE) of Outwalk/IMMS, compared to the reference, was less than 17 in the transversal plane, and less than 10 in the sagittal and frontal planes. The greatest differences were found in offsets in the knee and ankle rotation, and in the hip flexion. These offset differences were mainly caused by a different anatomical calibration in the protocols. When removing the offsets, RMSE was always less than 4. Therefore, IMMS is suitable for gait analysis of major joint angles in a laboratory-free setting. Further studies should focus on improvement of anatomical calibrations of IMMS that can be performed in children with CP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-386
Number of pages10
JournalMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


  • Cerebral palsy
  • Gait
  • Inertial sensors
  • Joint kinematics
  • Rehabilitation

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