High vitamin K status is prospectively associated with decreased left ventricular mass in women: the Hoorn Study

Joline W. J. Beulens, Elisa Dal Canto, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Roger J. M. W. Rennenberg, Petra J. M. Elders, Adriana Johanne van Ballegooijen

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Background: Vitamin K is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk such as heart failure, possibly by carboxylation of matrix-gla protein (MGP), a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. The relationship of vitamin K intake or status with cardiac structure and function is largely unknown. Therefore this study aims to investigate the prospective association of vitamin K status and intake with echocardiographic measures. Methods: This study included 427 participants from the Hoorn Study, a population-based cohort. Vitamin K status was assessed at baseline by plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) with higher concentrations reflecting lower vitamin K status. Vitamin K intake was assessed at baseline with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and after a mean follow-up time of 7.6, SD=±0.7 years. We used linear regression for the association of vitamin K status and intake with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI), adjusted for potential confounders. Results: The mean age was 66.8, SD=±6.1 years (51% were male). A high vitamin K status was prospectively associated with decreased LVMI (change from baseline to follow-up: -5.0, 95% CI: -10.5;0.4 g/m2.7) for the highest quartile compared to the lowest in women (P-interaction sex=0.07). No association was found in men. Vitamin K status was not associated with LVEF or LAVI. Vitamin K intake was not associated with any of the echocardiographic measures. Conclusions: This study showed a high vitamin K status being associated with decreased LVMI only in women, while intakes of vitamin K were not associated with any cardiac structure or function measures. These results extend previous findings for a role of vitamin K status to decrease heart failure risk.
Original languageEnglish
Article number85
JournalNutrition Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Echocardiograph
  • Matrix gla protein
  • Vascular calcification
  • Vitamin K status

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