HIV persistence: silence or resistance?

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Despite decades of suppressive antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoirs in infected individuals persist and fuel viral rebound once therapy is interrupted. The persistence of viral reservoirs is the main obstacle to achieving HIV eradication or a long-term remission. The last decade has seen a profound change in our understanding of the mechanisms behind HIV persistence, which appears to be much more complex than originally assumed. In addition to the persistence of transcriptionally silent proviruses in a stable latent reservoir that is invisible to the immune system, HIV is increasingly recognized to persist by resistance to the immune clearance, which appears to play a surprisingly prominent role in shaping the reservoir. In this review, we discuss some emerging insights into the mechanisms of HIV persistence, as well as their implications for the development of strategies towards an HIV cure.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101301
JournalCurrent opinion in virology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023

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