Purpose: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been associated with both protective and detrimental effects on the development of ischemic heart disease. The relationship between IGF-1 levels and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between IGF-1 admission levels in hyperglycemic ACS patients and: (1) MACE over a 5 years follow-up, (2) type 2 diabetes at discharge, and (3) post-ACS myocardial infarct size and dysfunction. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the BIOMArCS-2 randomized controlled trial. From July 2008 to February 2012, 276 ACS patients with admission plasma glucose level between 140 and 288 mg/dL were included. Records of the composite of all-cause mortality and recurrent non-fatal myocardial infarction were obtained during 5 years follow-up. Venous blood samples were collected on admission. IGF-1 was measured batchwise after study completion. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed to diagnose type 2 diabetes, whereas infarct size and left ventricular function were assessed by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) imaging, 6 weeks post-ACS. Results: Cumulative incidence of MACE was 24% at 5 years follow-up. IGF-1 was not independently associated with MACE (HR:1.00 (95%CI:0.99–1.00), p = 0.29). Seventy-eight patients (28%) had type 2 diabetes at discharge, and the highest quartile of IGF-1 levels was associated with the lowest incidence of diabetes (HR:0.40 (95%CI:0.17–0.95), p = 0.037). IGF-1 levels were not associated with post-ACS myocardial infarct size and dysfunction. Conclusions: IGF-1 carries potential for predicting type 2 diabetes, rather than long-term cardiovascular outcomes and post-ACS myocardial infarct size and dysfunction, in hyperglycemic ACS patients.