Ileal vaginoplasty as vaginal reconstruction in transgender women and patients with disorders of sex development: an international, multicentre, retrospective study on surgical characteristics and outcomes: an international, multicentre, retrospective study on surgical characteristics and outcomes

Wouter B. van der Sluis, Nicola Pavan, Giovanni Liguori, Stefano Bucci, Marta R. Bizic, Vladimir Kojovic, Jochen Hess, Wilhelmus J. H. J. Meijerink, Margriet G. Mullender, M. jde Özer, Jan Maerten Smit, Marlon E. Buncamper, Susanne Krege, Miroslav L. Djordjevic, Carlo Trombetta, Mark-Bram Bouman

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27 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To describe the surgical outcomes of ileal vaginoplasty in transgender women and patients with disorders of sex development (DSD). Patients and Methods: Transgender women and patients with DSD, who underwent ileal vaginoplasty at the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, University Hospital Trieste, University Hospital Essen, and Belgrade University Hospital, were retrospectively identified. A chart review was performed, recording surgical technique, intraoperative characteristics, complications, and re-operations. Results: We identified a total of 32 patients (27 transgender and five non-transgender), with a median (range) age of 35 (6–63) years. Ileal vaginoplasty was performed as the primary procedure in three and as a revision procedure in the remaining 29. The mean (sd) operative time was 288 (103) min. The procedure was performed laparoscopically (seven patients) or open (25). An ileal ‘U-pouch’ was created in five patients and a single lumen in 27. Intraoperative complications occurred in two patients (one iatrogenic bladder damage and one intraoperative blood loss necessitating transfusion). The median (range) hospitalisation was 12 (6–30) days. Successful neovaginal reconstruction was achieved in all. The mean (sd) achieved neovaginal depth was 13.2 (3.1) cm. The median (range) clinical follow-up was 35 (3–159) months. In one patient a recto-neovaginal fistula occurred, which lead to temporary ileostomy. Introital stenosis occurred in four patients (12.5%). Conclusion: Ileal vaginoplasty can be performed with few intra- and postoperative complications. It appears to have similar complication rates when compared to sigmoid vaginoplasty. It now seems to be used predominantly for revision procedures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)952-958
Number of pages7
JournalBJU international
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • complications
  • gender dysphoria
  • reconstructive surgical procedures
  • sex reassignment procedures
  • transgender surgery
  • vaginoplasty

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