Immaturity of human stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes in culture: fatal flaw or soluble problem?

Christiaan C. Veerman, Georgios Kosmidis, Christine L. Mummery, Simona Casini, Arie O. Verkerk, Milena Bellin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

205 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) are increasingly used to model cardiac disease, test drug efficacy and for safety pharmacology. Nevertheless, a major hurdle to more extensive use is their immaturity and similarity to fetal rather than adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we provide an overview of the strategies currently being used to increase maturation in culture, which include prolongation of time in culture, exposure to electrical stimulation, application of mechanical strain, growth in three-dimensional tissue configuration, addition of non-cardiomyocytes, use of hormones and small molecules, and alteration of the extracellular environment. By comparing the outcomes of these studies, we identify the approaches most likely to improve functional maturation of hPSC-CMs in terms of their electrophysiology and excitation-contraction coupling
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1035-1052
JournalStem cells and development
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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