Improvement of group climate in a residential setting for juveniles with mild intellectual disability through training of staff in Non-Violent Resistance

Katharina M. Visser, Arne Popma, Lucres M. C. Jansen, Marianne C. Kasius, Robert R. J. M. Vermeiren

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: An open group climate is essential in successful residential care for juveniles with mild intellectual disability (MID). This study examined whether non-violent resistance, adapted for MID (NVR-MID), stimulates an open group climate in time. Method: NVR-MID was implemented in three residential settings in The Netherlands, in a quasi-experimental stepped wedge design. In total, 124 clients with MID (Mage = 16.39 [SD = 4.95], 49.9% male) participated. Group climate was assessed seven times with the Group Climate Inventory for Children or the Group Climate Inventory-Revisited (GCI-R), during a total of 20 months. Results: Open group climate scores increased in all three institutions; effect size was medium. Clients with lower IQs experienced group climate as more positive compared to clients with higher IQs. Effects were similar for both groups. Conclusions: As NVR-MID appeared to contribute to a positive experienced group climate, it might be advisable to implement NVR-MID on larger scale.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1592-1601
Number of pages10
Issue number6
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • aggression
  • group climate
  • mild intellectual disability
  • non-violent resistance
  • residential treatment

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