Improving the diagnostics of tuberculosis and drug resistance with Xpert MTB/RIF in a district general hospital in Sierra Leone: A quality improvement project

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Sierra Leone has a high tuberculosis (TB) burden with a prevalence of 441 cases per 100 000 population. As a result of the Global Fund, some facilities in the country have access to improved diagnostics, including Xpert MTB/RIF testing, of particular use in diagnosing those at risk of drug resistance, in the form of rifampicin-resistant (RR) TB. This quality improvement project describes how a small, rural district general hospital in Masanga village improved the diagnosis of TB and RR-TB by creating a formal link with the regional hospital in Makeni city. In an effort to improve diagnosis, all patients with a suspicion of TB and one of the following would have a sample sent for Xpert MTB/RIF testing: previous TB treatment (of any course length), HIV positive or known contact of a RR-TB case. The samples were transported by the logistics team, who already drove weekly from Masanga to Makeni for supplies, and the results were texted to the clinician in charge of the medical ward. Over the course of the first 4 months of this intervention, 34 samples had Xpert MTB/RIF testing performed compared with two samples in the previous 12 months since the machine had been installed. This yielded nine additional diagnoses of TB (in patients with negative or unavailable smear results) and five diagnoses of RR-TB with subsequent appropriate isolation and transfer to the central tertiary centre. This study shows that it is feasible to centralise Xpert MTB/RIF testing in low-resource settings using creative methods for sample transfer and results dissemination, leading to both improved diagnostics and infection control.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000478
JournalBMJ open quality
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

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