In the mix: the potential benefits of adding GM-CSF to CpG-B in the local treatment of patients with early-stage melanoma

Bas D. Koster, Tamarah D. de Jong, Mari F.C.M. van den Hout, Berbel J.R. Sluijter, Ronald J.C.L.M. Vuylsteke, Barbara G. Molenkamp, Saskia Vosslamber, M. Petrousjka van den Tol, Alfons J.M. van den Eertwegh, Tanja D. de Gruijl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Whereas TLR9 agonists are recognized as powerful stimulators of antitumor immunity, GM-CSF has had mixed reviews. In previously reported randomized trials we assessed the effects of local immune modulation in early-stage melanoma with CpG-B alone or with GM-CSF. Here we discuss the added value of GM-CSF and show sex-related differences.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1708066
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • CpG
  • GM-CSF
  • dendritic cells
  • melanoma
  • sentinel lymph node

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