In Vivo Accuracy of a Frameless Stereotactic Drilling Technique for Diagnostic Biopsies and Stereoelectroencephalography Depth Electrodes

Niels Verburg, Johannes C. Baayen, Sander Idema, Michiel A. J. Klitsie, Steven Claus, Catharina S. de Jonge, W. Peter Vandertop, Philip C. de Witt Hamer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Accurate frameless neuronavigation is highly important in cranial neurosurgery. The accuracy demonstrated in phantom models might not be representative for results in patients. Few studies describe the in vivo quantitative accuracy of neuronavigation in patients. The use of a frameless stereotactic drilling technique for stereoelectroencephalography depth electrode implantation in epilepsy patients, as well as diagnostic biopsies, provides a unique opportunity to assess the accuracy with postoperative imaging of preoperatively planned trajectories. In 7 patients with refractory epilepsy, 89 depth electrodes were implanted using a frameless stereotactic drilling technique. Each electrode was planned on a preoperative magnetic resonance and computed tomographic scan, and verified on postoperative computed tomographic scan. After fusion of preoperative and postoperative imaging, the accuracy for each electrode was calculated as the Euclidean distance between the planned and observed position of the electrode tip. The median Euclidean distance between planned and observed electrode implantations was 3.5 mm (95% confidence interval, 2.9-3.9 mm) with a range of 1.2-13.7 mm. In this study, we showed that the in vivo accuracy of our frameless stereotactic drilling technique, suitable for stereoelectroencephalography depth electrode placement and diagnostic brain biopsies, was 3.5 mm
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-398
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016


  • Depth electrode placement
  • Diagnostic biopsies
  • Frameless stereotaxy
  • Stereotactic drilling

Cite this