Inequalities in frailty among older Turkish and Moroccan immigrants and native Dutch: Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

Emiel O Hoogendijk, Maaike E Muntinga, Sascha de Breij, Martijn Huisman, Silvia S Klokgieters

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Very few studies have investigated frailty among older immigrants in Europe. The aim of the current study was to investigate inequalities in frailty in young-olds related to gender, educational level and country of origin, as well as intersections between these characteristics. Cross-sectional data were used from older Turkish and Moroccan immigrants (n = 466) and native Dutch (n = 1,020), all aged 55-65 years and participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Frailty was assessed with a 30-item frailty index, based on the deficit accumulation approach. Frailty was higher among women, lower educated, and people with a migration background. Of all groups considered, frailty levels were the highest among Turkish immigrants. No statistically significant interaction effects between gender, educational level and country of origin were found. When targeting frailty interventions, special attention should be devoted to older immigrants, as they are the most vulnerable group with the highest frailty levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-393
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of immigrant and minority health
Issue number2
Early online date26 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • Frail older adults
  • Frailty index
  • Health inequalities
  • Migration

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