Interventions reducing car usage: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Romanika Okraszewska, Aleksandra Romanowska, Dana Clarissa Laetsch, Anna Gobis, Lucia A. Reisch, Carlijn B.M. Kamphuis, Jeroen Lakerveld, Piotr Krajewski, Anna Banik, Nicolette R. den Braver, Sarah Forberger, Hermann Brenner, Joanna Żukowska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the extent to which transport-related interventions induced a reduction in car use. Both qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were employed. The synthesis included 31 original studies, while the meta-analysis included 21. Of the qualitatively synthesised studies, 74 % demonstrated that interventions were effective in reducing car use. The pooled estimates of the effects showed a significant reduction in car usage with a mean effect size of Hedges’ g = -0.117 (p = 0.024). The effect strongly varies across the studies due to considerable heterogeneity (I2 = .98, with a 95 % prediction interval from −0.589 to 0.355). At the moderator level, no significant differences were identified in the mean effect sizes for any subgroups, and the key factors could not be distinguished. The current body of evidence highlights that transport-related interventions can significantly influence car usage reduction, while literature suggests that this may benefit environment and society.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104217
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Active travel
  • Car usage reduction
  • Meta-analysis
  • Systematic review
  • Transport intervention

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