Intragraft Obstructive Thrombus Two Years After Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Aortic Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

E. Beijer, V. P. W. Scholtes, M. Truijers, J. H. Nederhoed, K. K. Yeung, J. D. Blankensteijn

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is the treatment of choice for blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) and has proven to be a good alternative to open surgery. TEVAR requires less operation time, has fewer complications, can be used for relatively unstable patients, and is associated with a significantly lower mortality rate. Moreover, long term follow up data demonstrate low re-intervention rates and stentgraft failure. Report: The case of a 21 year old man who sustained severe trauma, including a traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta distal to the left subclavian artery in 2016, is presented. The patient was treated by TEVAR. Two years later, he presented with progressive paraplegia due to stentgraft occlusion occurring four days after a new high velocity motor vehicle accident. An axillofemoral bypass was performed to assure blood flow to the lower body. Two days later the stentgraft was removed via left thoracotomy and replaced by a Dacron graft. Gross examination showed severe thrombus formation at the proximal edge, and a thrombotic occlusion in the middle and distal third of the stent. After three months of hospitalisation the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation clinic with partial recovery of his paraplegia. As of June 2020, the patient was able to walk without assistance and his paraplegia improved with only loss of sensation of his lower legs. Conclusion: A serious thrombotic complication two years after TEVAR is described. Although TEVAR is the currently preferred treatment for BTAI, more research is needed to examine the mechanisms behind this thrombotic complication and to elucidate whether TEVAR is definitive treatment or a “bridge to further surgery”. Smaller diameter stentgrafts, anticoagulation, regular (lifelong) follow up imaging, and prophylactic surgical conversion in (selected) patients might help to prevent this serious complication.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-41
Number of pages6
JournalEJVES Vascular Forum
Volume53
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021

Keywords

  • BTAI (Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury)
  • Obstruction
  • Occlusion
  • Paraplegia
  • TEVAR (Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair)
  • Thrombus

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