Intraoperative Visualization and Treatment of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Sialendoscopy (CEUSS)

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In sialendoscopy, ducts are dilated and the salivary glands are irrigated with saline. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound sialendoscopy (CEUSS), using microbubbles, may facilitate the monitoring of irrigation solution penetration in the ductal system and parenchyma. It is imperative to test CEUSS for its safety and feasibility in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) patients. CEUSS was performed on 10 SS patients. The primary outcomes were safety, determined by the occurrence of (serious) adverse events ((S)AEs), and feasibility. The secondary outcomes were unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva (UWS and SWS) flow rates, xerostomia inventory (XI), clinical oral dryness score, pain, EULAR Sjögren’s syndrome patient reported index (ESSPRI), and gland topographical alterations. CEUSS was technically feasible in all patients. Neither SAEs nor systemic reactions related to the procedure were observed. The main AEs were postoperative pain (two patients) and swelling (two patients). Eight weeks after CEUSS, the median UWS and SWS flow had increased significantly from 0.10 to 0.22 mL/min (p = 0.028) and 0.41 to 0.61 mL/min (p = 0.047), respectively. Sixteen weeks after CEUSS, the mean XI was reduced from 45.2 to 34.2 (p = 0.02). We conclude that CEUSS is a safe and feasible treatment for SS patients. It has the potential to increase salivary secretion and reduce xerostomia, but this needs further investigation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4152
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of clinical medicine
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023


  • Sjogren’s syndrome
  • Sjögren’s syndrome
  • endoscopy
  • microbubbles
  • saliva
  • sialendoscopy
  • ultrasound
  • xerostomia

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