Irreversible electroporation of the porcine kidney: Temperature development and distribution

Peter G. K. Wagstaff, Daniel M. de Bruin, Willemien van den Bos, Alexandre Ingels, Martin J. C. van Gemert, Patricia J. Zondervan, Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk, Krijn P. van Lienden, Ton G. van Leeuwen, Jean J. M. C. H. de La Rosette, M. Pilar Laguna Pes

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Abstract

Objective: Although tissue ablation by irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been characterized as nonthermal, the application of frequent repetitive high-intensity electric pulses has the potential of substantially heating the targeted tissue and causing thermal damage. This study evaluates the risk of possible thermal damage by measuring temperature development and distribution during IRE of porcine kidney tissue. Methods: The animal procedures were conducted following an approved Institutional Animal Ethics Committee protocol. IRE ablation was performed in 8 porcine kidneys. Of them, 4 kidneys were treated with a 3-needle configuration and the remaining 4 with a 4-needle configuration. All IRE ablations consisted of 70 pulses with a length 90 mu s. The pulse frequency was set at 90 pulses/min, and the pulse intensity at 1,500 V/cm with a spacing of 15 rum between the needles. The temperature was measured internally using 4 fiber-optic temperature probes and at the surface using a thermal camera. Results: For the 3-needle configuration, a peak temperature of 57 degrees C (mean = 49 +/- 10 degrees C, n = 3) was measured in the core of the ablation zone and 40 degrees C (mean = 36 +/- 3 degrees C, n = 3) at 1 cm outside of the ablation zone, from a baseline temperature of 33 +/- 1 degrees C. For the 4-needle configuration, a peak temperature of 79 degrees C (mean = 62 +/- 16 degrees C, n = 3) was measured in the core of the ablation zone and 42 degrees C (mean = 39 +/- 3 degrees C, n = 3) at 1 cm outside of the ablation zone, from a baseline of 35 +/- 1 degrees C. The thermal camera recorded the peak surface temperatures in the center of the ablation zone, reaching 31 degrees C and 35 degrees C for the 3- and 4-needle configuration IRE (baseline 22 degrees C). Conclusions: The application of repetitive high-intensity electric pulses during IRE ablation in porcine kidney causes a lethal rise in temperature within the ablation zone. Temperature monitoring should be considered when performing IRE ablation near vital structures. C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)168.e1-168.e7
JournalUrologic Oncology
Volume33
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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