Kidney hemodynamic function in men and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and preserved kidney function

Daan M. van Velzen, Mark M. Smits, Erik J. M. van Bommel, Marcel H. A. Muskiet, Lennart Tonneijck, Mark H. H. Kramer, Jaap A. Joles, Martin den Heijer, Natalie Nokoff, Petter Bjornstad, Daniël H. van Raalte

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The progression of kidney disease may differ between sexes in type 2 diabetes (T2D), with previous studies reporting a slower decline in women. Glomerular hyperfiltration is a key factor driving the kidney function decline. The current study aimed to investigate the differences in kidney hemodynamic function between men and women with T2D. A cross-sectional analysis of pooled data from three studies compared kidney hemodynamic function between men and postmenopausal women with T2D without overt nephropathy. The outcome measures were glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin clearance), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF; p-aminohippurate clearance), filtration fraction (GFR/ERPF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR; mean arterial pressure/renal blood flow). Glomerular hydraulic pressure (PGLO) as well as afferent and efferent vascular resistance were estimated by Gomez formulae. Sex differences were assessed with linear regression models adjusted for systolic blood pressure, glucose, use of renin-angiotensin system blockers, and body mass index. In total, 101 men [age: 63 (58-68) yr, body mass index: 31.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2, GFR: 111 ± 18 mL/min, HbA1c: 7.4 ± 0.7%] and 27 women [age: 66 (62-69) yr, body mass index: 30.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, GFR: 97 ± 11 mL/min, HbA1c: 7.1 ± 0.5%] were included. GFR was higher in men versus women [11.0 mL/min (95% confidence interval: 3.6, 18.4)]. Although statistically nonsignificant, PGLO trended higher in men [1.9mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.1, 4.0)], whereas RVR [-0.012 mmHg/L/min (95% confidence interval: -0.022, -0.002)] and afferent vascular resistance were lower [-361 dyn/s/cm5 (95% confidence interval: -801, 78)]. In conclusion, in adults without overt nephropathy, GFR was higher in men compared with women. PGLO also trended to be higher in men. Both findings are possibly related to afferent vasodilation and suggest greater prevalence of hyperfiltration. This could contribute to accelerated GFR loss over time in men with T2D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)F1152-F1158
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology.Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Glomerular pressure
  • Kidney hemodynamic function
  • Sex differences
  • Type 2 diabetes

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