LDL cholesterol and uridine levels in blood are potential nutritional biomarkers for clinical progression in Alzheimer's disease: The NUDAD project

Francisca A. de Leeuw, Betty M. Tijms, Astrid S. Doorduijn, Heleen M.A. Hendriksen, Ondine van de Rest, Marian A.E. de van der Schueren, Marjolein Visser, Ellen G.H.M. van den Heuvel, Nick van Wijk, Jörgen Bierau, Bart N. van Berckel, Philip Scheltens, Maartje I. Kester, Wiesje M. van der Flier, Charlotte E. Teunissen

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6 Citations (Scopus)


INTRODUCTION: We examined associations between nutritional biomarkers and clinical progression in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type dementia. METHODS: We included 528 individuals (64 ± 8 years, 46% F, follow-up 2.1 ± 0.87 years) with SCD (n = 204), MCI (n = 130), and AD (n = 194). Baseline levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, homocysteine, folate, vitamin A, B12, E and uridine were measured in blood and S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in cerebrospinal fluid. We determined associations between nutritional biomarkers and clinical progression using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Twenty-two (11%) patients with SCD, 45 (35%) patients with MCI, and 100 (52%) patients with AD showed clinical progression. In SCD, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were associated with progression (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.88 [1.04 to 3.41]). In AD, lower uridine levels were associated with progression (0.79 [0.63 to 0.99]). DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that LDL cholesterol and uridine play a—stage-dependent—role in the clinical progression of AD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12120
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cholesterol
  • clinical progression
  • memory clinic
  • nutritional biomarkers
  • uridine

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