Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

Rimke C. Vos, Jules G. Becher, J.M. Voorman, Jan Willem Goiter, Mirjam van Eck, Jetty van Meeteren, Dirk-Wouter Smits, Jos W. Twisk, Annet Dallmeijer, Jan Willem Gorter, P.E.M. van Schie, C. Schuengel, M. Ketelaar, E. Lindeman, M.J. Jongmans, M.E. Roebroeck, S. Tan, D.J.H.G. Wiegerink, H.A. Reinders-Messelink, J. Verheijden

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Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations centers. Participants A sample (N=327) consisting of 148 children (aged 5–9y) and 179 youth (aged 11–20y) with CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I (n=180), level II (n=44), level III (n=36), level IV (n=34), and level V (n=33). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Gross motor capacity was assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 over a period of 2 to 4 years in different age cohorts. Neuromusculoskeletal function included selective motor control (SMC), muscle strength, spasticity, and range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities. Results Multilevel analyses showed that SMC was significantly associated with gross motor capacity in children and youth with CP, showing higher values and a more favorable course of gross motor capacity in those with better SMC. Strength was only associated with gross motor capacity in youth. Reduced ROM of hip (children) and knee extension (youth) and spasticity of the hip adductors (youth) were additionally—but more weakly—associated with lower values and a less favorable course of gross motor capacity. Conclusions Results indicate that children and youth with more severely impaired SMC and youth with reduced muscle strength have a less favorable course of gross motor capacity, while spasticity and reduced ROM are less determinative.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1337
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2016


  • Adolescent
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Child
  • Motor disorders
  • Rehabilitation

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