Low bone mineral density in patients with well-suppressed HIV infection: association with body weight, smoking, and prior advanced HIV disease

Katherine W. Kooij, Ferdinand W. N. M. Wit, Peter H. Bisschop, Judith Schouten, Ineke G. Stolte, Maria Prins, Marc van der Valk, Jan M. Prins, Berthe L. F. van Eck-Smit, Paul Lips, Peter Reiss

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may both contribute to the higher prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in HIV-infected individuals. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we compared lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in 581 HIV-positive (94.7% receiving cART) and 520 HIV-negative participants of the AGEhIV Cohort Study, aged ≥45 years. We used multivariable linear regression to investigate independent associations between HIV, HIV disease characteristics, ART, and BMD. The study population largely consisted of men who have sex with men (MSM). Osteoporosis was significantly more prevalent in those with HIV infection (13.3% vs 6.7%; P <.001). After adjustment for body weight and smoking, being HIV-positive was no longer independently associated with BMD. Low body weight was more strongly negatively associated with BMD in HIV-positive persons with a history of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention class B or C event. Interestingly, regardless of HIV status, younger MSM had significantly lower BMD than older MSM, heterosexual men, and women. The observed lower BMD in treated HIV-positive individuals was largely explained by both lower body weight and more smoking. Having experienced symptomatic HIV disease, often associated with weight loss, was another risk factor. The low BMD observed in younger MSM remains unexplained and needs further study
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-548
JournalJournal of infectious diseases
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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