Matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine profiles in monocytes over the course of stroke

M Kouwenhoven, C Carlström, V Ozenci, H Link

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Stroke is a common cause of death and disability in our society. Stroke is associated with changes in immune responses within the central nervous system as well as systemically. The cells contributing to such changes as well as the factors contributing to formation of the inflammatory infiltrate observed in stroke remain to be clarified. In this study, blood monocytes and corresponding mononuclear cells (MNC) were separated and examined in parallel within 4 days and 1-3 months after onset of ischemic stroke. Numbers of TNF-alpha-, IL-12-, IL-6-, and IL-10-secreting cells and of cells expressing mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -7, -9 and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 were studied. The TNF-alpha-, IL-12-, and IL-6-secreting monocytes and MNC were elevated during the acute phase compared to healthy controls. Such differences were not observed when stroke patients were examined during convalescence. The IL-10-secreting monocytes did not change over the course of stroke. Levels of monocytes expressing MMP-1, MMP-7 and TIMP-1 mRNA were elevated in the acute phase of stroke patients compared to convalescence and healthy controls, as were levels of MMP-1, -2, -7, -9 and TIMP-1 mRNA expressing blood MNC. The MMP-2 and -9 activity as measured by zymography also was higher in MNC supernatants in the acute phase of stroke compared to convalescence. The high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs in blood monocytes and MNC further demonstrate the presence of systemic aberrations in the acute phase of stroke. Such changes may contribute to the influx of blood-borne cells into the ischemic lesions during the acute phase of stroke.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-75
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of clinical immunology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2001


  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cytokines/genetics
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-10/genetics
  • Interleukin-12/genetics
  • Interleukin-6/genetics
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 7/genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases/genetics
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocytes/immunology
  • Stroke/immunology
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/genetics
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  • Up-Regulation

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