Objective: To explore whether Memory Self-efficacy is related to depression, neuroticism and coping in patients after stroke, as it is in healthy elderly subjects. Design: A cross-sectional design. The relation between Memory Self-efficacy and psychosocial factors was analysed using a Mann-Whitney U test and non-parametric Spearman correlations. Patients: Seventeen male and 6 female patients after stroke from an inpatient rehabilitation setting were included. Methods: Memory Self-efficacy, depression, neuroticism and coping were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients with severe aphasia, subarachnoidal haemorrhage or subdural haematomas were excluded. Results: As in healthy elderly subjects, higher depression ratings are significantly related to lower Memory Self-efficacy ratings (Z=-2.13; p=0.033). Lower Memory Self-efficacy seems related to higher neuroticism ratings and a more passive coping style score (Z=-1.54; p=0.123; Z=-1.42; p=0.155, respectively). The Spearman correlations confirm these finding (p<0.10). Conclusion: This study replicated the relationships between Memory Self-efficacy and depression and neuroticism found in a healthy population, in an inpatient stroke population. Future research on Memory Self-efficacy in patients after stroke should focus on other potential determinants such as awareness and, ultimately, on the effectiveness and efficacy of interventions aimed at Memory Self-efficacy to improve participation and quality of life. © 2008 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2008 Foundation of Rehabilitation Information.