Microalbuminuria and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction are independently associated with cardiovascular mortality: evidence for distinct pathways: the Hoorn Study

H.J.B. Beijers, I. Ferreira, B. Bravenboer, J.M. Dekker, M.G.A.A.M. Nijpels, R.J. Heine, C.D.A. Stehouwer

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OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria is associated with cardiovascular mortality, particularly among individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not completely understood. Microalbuminuria is known to be associated with cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (C-AD), and C-AD in turn is associated with cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether C-AD can explain the relationship between microalbuminuria and cardiovascular mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 490 individuals from a population-based cohort of individuals aged 50-75 years who were followed for a median period of 13.6 years. Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or =2.0 mg/mmol in an early-morning spot-urine sample. Ten parameters reflecting different aspects of cardiovascular autonomic function were measured and compiled into a total score of C-AD (mean of separate z scores). The association between C-AD and microalbuminuria was estimated by multiple linear regression, and relative risks (RRs) for cardiovascular mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS: After adjustments for age, sex, glucose tolerance status, and other risk factors, C-AD was associated with microalbuminuria (beta = 0.16 [95% CI 0.01-0.33]), and both microalbuminuria (RR 2.09 [1.07-4.08]) and C-AD (1.74 [1.04-2.89]) were associated with cardiovascular mortality. These associations did not change after further mutual adjustment for C-AD (2.13 [1.09-4.17]) or microalbuminuria (1.76 [1.05-2.94]), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both microalbuminuria and C-AD are independently associated with cardiovascular mortality, and the excess mortality attributable to microalbuminuria cannot be explained by C-AD
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1698-1703
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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