Microvascular proliferations in arteriovenous malformations relate to high-flow characteristics, inflammation, and previous therapeutic embolization of the lesion

Lorine B. Meijer-Jorna, Chris M. van der Loos, Onno J. de Boer, Anton J. G. Horrevoets, Jan R. Mekkes, Chantal M. A. M. van der Horst, Allard C. van der Wal

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Abstract

Episodes of microvascular proliferation associated with volume expansion have been observed in arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of skin and soft tissue. We sought to investigate the relationship between a microvascular proliferative response and flow velocity in AVMs. Resection specimens of 80 AVMs were clinically categorized as either high- or low-flow lesions, and histopathologically screened for the presence of microvessels, inflammation, thrombosis, or a combination of these. Immunohistochemistry was performed with endoglin (CD105), von Willebrand factor, and fibrinogen antibodies. Clinically, 37 AVMs were classified as high-flow lesions and 43 as low-flow lesions. In 81% of high-flow lesions microvascular proliferations were seen versus in 14% of low-flow lesions (P < .005). In high-flow lesions, which were embolized before surgery (30% of all), 88% showed microvascular proliferation, 88% inflammation, and 33% thrombosis. However, similar vasoproliferative responses were also observed in nonembolized AVM (69% high-flow and 14% low-flow lesions). Endoglin was more frequently expressed in high-flow lesions. Extracellular von Willebrand factor staining was found in most lesions, irrespective of flow type or presence of microvascular proliferations. The study was carried out at a single tertiary referral center. Microvascular proliferative masses in AVMs appear to be strongly associated with high-flow characteristics. This could be explained to some extent by previous therapeutic embolization and/or inflammation in the lesion. However, occurrence of similar microvascular responses in AVM that were not embolized before surgery suggests that the biomechanical effects of high flow in these lesions may also have an angiogenic effect
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)638-646
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Volume68
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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