Statin therapy has delivered tremendous value to society by improving the burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally. Technological advances such as in the field of genomics have revolutionized drug discovery and development and have revealed novel therapeutic targets to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as well as other detrimental lipids and lipoproteins. Therapeutic LDL-C lowering prevents atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with an effect size proportional to absolute LDL-C reductions and time of exposure. This understanding supports the notion that reducing cumulative LDL-C exposure should be a key therapeutic target. PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibiting monoclonal antibodies provides the possibility of reducing LDL-C to very low levels. Novel therapeutic platforms such as RNA inhibition present opportunities to combine robust lipid lowering with infrequent dosing regimens, introducing therapies with vaccine-like properties. The position of lipid-lowering therapies with targets other than LDL-C, such as Lp(a) [lipoprotein(a)], TRL (triglyceride-rich lipoproteins), and remnant cholesterol, will likely be determined by the results of ongoing clinical trials. Current evidence suggests that reducing Lp(a) or TRLs could attenuate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in specific categories of patients. This review provides an overview of the latest therapeutic developments, focusing on their mechanisms, efficacy, and safety.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)349-359
Number of pages11
JournalArteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019

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