Retinoblastoma mimickers, or pseudoretinoblastoma, are conditions that show similarities with the pediatric cancer retinoblastoma. However, false-positive retinoblastoma diagnosis can cause mistreatment, while false-negative diagnosis can cause life-threatening treatment delay. The purpose of this study is to identify the MR imaging features that best differentiate between retinoblastoma and the most common pseudoretinoblastoma diagnoses: Coats' disease and persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). Here, six expert radiologists performed retrospective assessments (blinded for diagnosis) of MR images of patients with a final diagnosis based on histopathology or clinical follow-up. Associations between 20 predefined imaging features and diagnosis were assessed with exact tests corrected for multiple hypothesis testing. Sixty-six patients were included, of which 33 (50%) were retinoblastoma and 33 (50%) pseudoretinoblastoma patients. A larger eye size, vitreous seeding, and sharp-V-shaped retinal detachment were almost exclusively found in retinoblastoma (p < 0.001-0.022, specificity 93-97%). Features that were almost exclusively found in pseudoretinoblastoma included smaller eye size, ciliary/lens deformations, optic nerve atrophy, a central stalk between optic disc and lens, Y-shaped retinal detachment, and absence of calcifications (p < 0.001-0.022, specificity 91-100%). Additionally, three newly identified imaging features were exclusively present in pseudoretinoblastoma: intraretinal macrocysts (p < 0.001, 38% [9/24] in Coats' disease and 20% [2/10] in PFV), contrast enhancement outside the solid lesion (p < 0.001, 30% [7/23] in Coats' disease and 57% [4/7] in PFV), and enhancing subfoveal nodules (38% [9/24] in Coats' disease). An assessment strategy was proposed for MR imaging differentiation between retinoblastoma and pseudoretinoblastoma, including three newly identified differentiating MR imaging features.
- Coats’ disease
- Persistent fetal vasculature