MRI of ICAM-1 upregulation after stroke: the importance of choosing the appropriate target-specific particulate contrast agent

Lisette H. Deddens, Geralda A. F. van Tilborg, Annette van der Toorn, Kajo van der Marel, Leonie E. M. Paulis, Louis van Bloois, Gert Storm, Gustav J. Strijkers, Willem J. M. Mulder, Helga E. de Vries, Rick M. Dijkhuizen

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40 Citations (Scopus)


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with targeted contrast agents provides a promising means for diagnosis and treatment monitoring after cerebrovascular injury. Our goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to detect the neuroinflammatory biomarker intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) after stroke and to establish a most efficient imaging procedure. We compared two types of ICAM-1-functionalized contrast agent: T 1-shortening gadolinium chelate-containing liposomes and T2(*)-shortening micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIO). Binding efficacy and MRI contrast effects were tested in cell cultures and a mouse stroke model. Both ICAM-1-targeted agents bound effectively to activated cerebrovascular cells in vitro, generating significant MRI contrast-enhancing effects. Direct in vivo MRI-based detection after stroke was only achieved with ICAM-1-targeted MPIO, although both contrast agents showed similar target-specific vascular accumulation. Our study demonstrates the potential of in vivo MRI of post-stroke ICAM-1 upregulation and signifies target-specific MPIO as most suitable contrast agent for molecular MRI of cerebrovascular inflammation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-422
JournalMolecular imaging and biology : MIB
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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