Near-Infrared Fluorescence with Indocyanine Green to Assess Bone Perfusion: A Systematic Review

Marlies Michi, Max Madu, Henri A. H. Winters, Daniel M. de Bruin, Joost R. van der Vorst, Caroline Driessen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: Adequate perfusion of a bone flap is essential for successful reconstruction of osseous defects. Unfortunately, complications related to inadequate bone perfusion are common. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging enables intraoperative visualization of perfusion. NIRF has been investigated in reconstructive surgery to aid the surgeon in clinical perioperative assessment of soft tissue perfusion. However, little is known on the beneficial use of NIRF to assess bone perfusion. Therefore, the aim of this review was to search for studies evaluating NIRF to assess bone perfusion. Methods: A systematic review, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline, was performed. Studies up to October 2021 were included. We extracted data regarding the study population, size and design, reported objective fluorescence parameters and the methodology used for fluorescence imaging and processing. Results: Ten articles were included. Studies reported unevenly on the protocol used for NIRF imaging. Five studies reported objective parameters. Absolute and relative perfusion parameters and parameters derived from maximum fluorescence were reported. The clinical significance of these parameters has not been evaluated in humans. Conclusion: The evidence on bone perfusion as measured with NIRF is limited. More clinical studies are required.
Original languageEnglish
Article number154
JournalLife (Basel, Switzerland)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Bone perfusion
  • Indocyanine green
  • Near-infrared fluorescence

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