Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with widespread brain abnormalities in white and grey matter, affecting not only local, but global functional networks as well. In this study, we explored these functional networks using source-reconstructed electroencephalography in ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. We expected evidence for maturational delay, with underlying abnormalities in the default mode network. Methods Electroencephalograms were recorded in ADHD (n = 42) and TD (n = 43) during rest, and functional connectivity (phase lag index) and graph (minimum spanning tree) parameters were derived. Dependent variables were global and local network metrics in theta, alpha and beta bands. Results We found evidence for a more centralized functional network in ADHD compared to TD children, with decreased diameter in the alpha band (ηp2 = 0.06) and increased leaf fraction (ηp2 = 0.11 and 0.08) in the alpha and beta bands, with underlying abnormalities in hub regions of the brain, including default mode network. Conclusions The finding of a more centralized network is in line with maturational delay models of ADHD and should be replicated in longitudinal designs. Significance This study contributes to the literature by combining high temporal and spatial resolution to construct EEG network topology, and associates maturational-delay and default-mode interference hypotheses of ADHD.
- Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
- Cortical synchronization
- attention deficit disorder with,electroencephalography,hyperactivity