New Approaches for Targeting PCSK9: Small-Interfering Ribonucleic Acid and Genome Editing

Reindert F. Oostveen, Amit V. Khera, Sekar Kathiresan, Erik S. G. Stroes, Kevin Fitzgerald, Matthew J. Harms, Benjamin L. Oakes, John J. P. Kastelein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


There is overwhelming clinical and genetic evidence supporting the concept that low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol should be as low as possible for as long as possible in patients at very high cardiovascular risk. Despite the wide availability of effective lipid-lowering therapies, the majority of patients still fail to reach guideline-based lipid goals. Advances in novel approaches targeting PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) through small-interfering RNA and genome editing hold the potential to bridge this gap, by offering long-acting alternatives, which may overcome adherence and other challenges in the current chronic care model. In this review, we discuss the history of targeting PCSK9 with the use of mRNA and small-interfering ribonucleic acid. We also shed light on targeting PCSK9 with genome editing, including discussion of the VERVE-101 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-base editing medicine currently being evaluated in a clinical trial and others in development.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1081-1092
Number of pages12
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • apolipoprotein
  • cardiology
  • coronary artery disease
  • mutation
  • subtilisin

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