New insights into a spectrum of developmental malformations related to mTOR dysregulations: challenges and perspectives

A. Mühlebner, A. Bongaarts, H. B. Sarnat, T. Scholl, E. Aronica

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50 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has emerged as crucial for normal cortical development. Therefore, it is not surprising that aberrant activation of mTOR is associated with developmental malformations and epileptogenesis. A broad spectrum of malformations of cortical development, such as focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), have been linked to either germline or somatic mutations in mTOR pathway-related genes, commonly summarised under the umbrella term ‘mTORopathies’. However, there are still a number of unanswered questions regarding the involvement of mTOR in the pathophysiology of these abnormalities. Therefore, a monogenetic disease, such as TSC, can be more easily applied as a model to study the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and identify potential new targets of therapy. Developmental neuropathology and genetics demonstrate that FCD IIb and hemimegalencephaly are the same diseases. Constitutive activation of mTOR signalling represents a shared pathogenic mechanism in a group of developmental malformations that have histopathological and clinical features in common, such as epilepsy, autism and other comorbidities. We seek to understand the effect of mTOR dysregulation in a developing cortex with the propensity to generate seizures as well as the aftermath of the surrounding environment, including the white matter.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-542
JournalJournal of anatomy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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