3 Citations (Scopus)


CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) is a transcription factor involved in apoptosis and proliferation, which is downregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Loss of nuclear C/EBPδ in PDAC cells is associated with decreased patient survival and pro-tumorigenic properties in vitro. Interestingly however, next to C/EBPδ expression in tumor cells, C/EBPδ is also expressed by cells constituting the tumor microenvironment and by cells comprising the organs and parenchyma. However, the functional relevance of systemic C/EBPδ in carcinogenesis remains elusive. Here, we consequently assessed the potential importance of C/EBPδ in somatic tissues by utilizing an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. In doing so, we show that genetic ablation of C/EBPδ does not significantly affect primary tumor growth but has a strong impact on metastases; wildtype mice developed metastases at multiple sites, whilst this was not the case in C/EBPδ-/- mice. In line with reduced metastasis formation in C/EBPδ-/- mice, C/EBPδ-deficiency also limited tumor cell dissemination in a specific extravasation model. Tumor cell extravasation was dependent on the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) as a PAFR antagonist inhibited tumor cell extravasation in wildtype mice but not in C/EBPδ-/- mice. Overall, we show that systemic C/EBPδ facilitates pancreatic cancer metastasis, and we suggest this is due to C/EBPδ-PAFR-dependent tumor cell extravasation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1079
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta
  • Extravasa-tion
  • Metastasis
  • PDAC
  • Pancreatic cancer

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