Orofacial pain and dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease: A scoping review

Merel C. Verhoeff, Michail Koutris, Sharine Tambach, Denise Eikenboom, Ralph de Vries, Henk W. Berendse, Karin D. van Dijk, Frank Lobbezoo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly known as a disorder that affects the smooth performance of body movements. In addition to the motor impairments, patients with PD often experience pain. Both motor impairments and pain can occur throughout the body, hence including the orofacial region. However, currently, there is a lack of knowledge on the orofacial manifestations. Since orofacial pain and dysfunction can, amongst others, reduce the quality of life of patients with PD, it is important to explore the prevalence of these symptoms in the PD population. Objective: To provide a broad overview of the relevant literature on orofacial pain and dysfunction in patients with PD. Furthermore, we aim to generate hypotheses for future research on this topic. Databases and data treatment: A literature search (in PubMed, Embase.com, Web of Science [Core collection], and Cochrane Library) was performed on 20 January 2022, in collaboration with a medical librarian. In total, 7180 articles were found, of which 50 were finally included in this scoping review. Results: In the included studies, pain (e.g. orofacial pain (N = 2) and temporomandibular disorder pain (N = 2)), orofacial motor dysfunction (e.g. limited jaw movements (N = 10), reduced maximum muscle output (N = 3), chewing difficulties (N = 9), unspecified TMD (N = 3), sensory disturbances (N = 1)), and bruxism (N = 3) were observed more often in patients with PD than in healthy controls. Conclusion: Patients with PD experience more pain in the orofacial area and more dysfunction of the masticatory system than their healthy peers. Significance: This scoping review can increase health care providers' awareness of the problems that can be encountered in the orofacial area of PD patients, especially pain syndromes also occur in the orofacial region and not only in the extremities. Besides, dysfunction of the orofacial area is elaborated in this scoping review, which helps to understand that this limits PD patients' quality of life. Further, the outcomes of this scoping review can assist in encouraging collaboration between medicine and dentistry. Finally, this scoping review suggests new research areas, based on the gaps identified in the current literature on this topic. Ultimately, this will improve individualized strategies for reducing orofacial pain and/or dysfunction in PD patients.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2036-2059
Number of pages24
JournalEuropean Journal of Pain (United Kingdom)
Issue number10
Early online date5 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

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