Abstract Objective. Deep brain stimulation is a treatment option for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. A new generation of stimulators hold promise for closed loop stimulation, with adaptive stimulation in response to biologic signals. Here we aimed to discover a suitable biomarker in the ventral striatum in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder using local field potentials. Approach. We induced obsessions and compulsions in 11 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation treatment using a symptom provocation task. Then we trained machine learning models to predict symptoms using the recorded intracranial signal from the deep brain stimulation electrodes. Main results. Average areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve were 62.1% for obsessions and 78.2% for compulsions for patient specific models. For obsessions it reached over 85% in one patient, whereas performance was near chance level when the model was trained across patients. Optimal performances for obsessions and compulsions was obtained at different recording sites. Significance. The results from this study suggest that closed loop stimulation may be a viable option for obsessive-compulsive disorder, but that intracranial biomarkers are patient and not disorder specific. Clinical Trial: Netherlands trial registry NL7486.
Original languageEnglish
Article number026008
JournalJournal of neural engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • closed loop stimulation
  • deep brain stimulation
  • deep learning
  • intracranial biomarker
  • local field potentials
  • obsessive compulsive disorder

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