Paving the way for immunotherapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: Current knowledge and the way forward

Joost B. Koedijk, Inge van der Werf, Friso G. Calkoen, Stefan Nierkens, Gertjan J. L. Kaspers, Christian Michel Zwaan, Olaf Heidenreich

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Immunotherapeutic agents may be an attractive option to further improve outcomes and to reduce treatment-related toxicity for pediatric AML. While improvements in outcome have been observed with immunotherapy in many cancer types, immunotherapy development and implementation into patient care for both adult and pediatric AML has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of the bone marrow environment and a paucity of tumor-specific antigens. Since only a minority of patients respond in most immunotherapy trials across different cancer types, it will be crucial to understand which children with AML are likely to respond to or may benefit from immunotherapies. Immune cell profiling efforts hold promise to answer this question, as illustrated by the development of predictive scores in solid cancers. Such information on the number and phenotype of immune cells during current treatment regimens will be pivotal to generate hypotheses on how and when to intervene with immunotherapy in pediatric AML. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the number and phenotype of immune cells in the bone marrow in pediatric AML, ongoing immunotherapy trials and how comprehensive immune profiling efforts may pave the way for successful clinical trials (and, ultimately, implementation into patient care).
Original languageEnglish
Article number4364
JournalCancers
Volume13
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021

Keywords

  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Children
  • Immune landscape
  • Immune monitoring
  • Immune profiling
  • Immunotherapy
  • Tumor immune microenvironment

Cite this