Perceived Sodium Reduction Barriers Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Which Barriers Are Important and Which Patients Experience Barriers?

The ESMO study group, AUTHOR GROUP

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Purpose: The purposes of this study were to assess the importance of perceived sodium reduction barriers among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify associated sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Method: A total of 156 patients with CKD completed a questionnaire assessing sodium reduction barriers (18 self-formulated items), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), perceived autonomy support (Modified Health Care Climate Questionnaire), and self-efficacy (Partners in Health Questionnaire). Factor analysis was used to identify barrier domains. Correlation coefficients were computed to examine relationships between barrier domains and patient characteristics. Results: Nine barrier domains were identified. Barriers perceived as important were as follows: high sodium content in products, lack of sodium feedback, lack of goal setting and discussing strategies for sodium reduction, and not experiencing CKD-related symptoms (mean scores > 3.0 on 5-point scales, ranging from 1 ‘no barrier’ to 5 ‘very important barrier’). Other barriers (knowledge, attitude, coping skills when eating out, and professional support) were rated as moderately important (rated around midpoint), and the barrier ‘intrinsic motivation’ was rated as somewhat important (mean score = 1.9). Sodium reduction barrier domains were not associated with gender and kidney function, but were associated with age, level of education, number of comorbidities, perceived autonomy support, depressive symptoms, and self-efficacy (range r = 0.17–0.35). Patients with lower self-efficacy and perceived autonomy support scores experienced most sodium reduction barriers. Conclusion: Patients with CKD experience multiple important sodium reduction barriers and could benefit from support strategies that target various sodium reduction barriers and strengthen beliefs regarding self-efficacy and autonomy support. Additionally, environmental interventions should be implemented to reduce sodium levels in processed foods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-102
Number of pages10
JournalInternational journal of behavioral medicine
Issue number1
Early online date2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • Lifestyle adherence
  • Patient-centered care
  • Perceived barriers
  • Reducing sodium intake
  • Self-management interventions

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