Performance of Noninvasive Airway Occlusion Maneuvers to Assess Lung Stress and Diaphragm Effort in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients

Heder J. de Vries, Pieter R. Tuinman, Annemijn H. Jonkman, Ling Liu, Haibo Qiu, Armand R. J. Girbes, Yingrui Zhang, Angelique M. E. de Man, Harm-Jan de Grooth, Leo Heunks

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Abstract

Background: Monitoring and controlling lung stress and diaphragm effort has been hypothesized to limit lung injury and diaphragm injury. The occluded inspiratory airway pressure (Pocc) and the airway occlusion pressure at 100 ms (P0.1) have been used as noninvasive methods to assess lung stress and respiratory muscle effort, but comparative performance of these measures and their correlation to diaphragm effort is unknown. The authors hypothesized that Pocc and P0.1 correlate with diaphragm effort and lung stress and would have strong discriminative performance in identifying extremes of lung stress and diaphragm effort. Methods: Change in transdiaphragmatic pressure and transpulmonary pressure was obtained with double-balloon nasogastric catheters in critically ill patients (n = 38). Pocc and P0.1 were measured every 1 to 3 h. Correlations between Pocc and P0.1 with change in transdiaphragmatic pressure and transpulmonary pressure were computed from patients from the first cohort. Accuracy of Pocc and P0.1 to identify patients with extremes of lung stress (change in transpulmonary pressure > 20 cm H 2O) and diaphragm effort (change in transdiaphragmatic pressure < 3 cm H 2O and >12 cm H 2O) in the preceding hour was assessed with area under receiver operating characteristic curves. Cutoffs were validated in patients from the second cohort (n = 13). Results: Pocc and P0.1 correlate with change in transpulmonary pressure (R 2= 0.62 and 0.51, respectively) and change in transdiaphragmatic pressure (R 2= 0.53 and 0.22, respectively). Area under receiver operating characteristic curves to detect high lung stress is 0.90 (0.86 to 0.94) for Pocc and 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92) for P0.1. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves to detect low diaphragm effort is 0.97 (0.87 to 1.00) for Pocc and 0.93 (0.81 to 0.99) for P0.1. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves to detect high diaphragm effort is 0.86 (0.81 to 0.91) for Pocc and 0.73 (0.66 to 0.79) for P0.1. Performance was similar in the external dataset. Conclusions: Pocc and P0.1 correlate with lung stress and diaphragm effort in the preceding hour. Diagnostic performance of Pocc and P0.1 to detect extremes in these parameters is reasonable to excellent. Pocc is more accurate in detecting high diaphragm effort.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-288
Number of pages15
JournalAnesthesiology
Volume138
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023

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