Plant‐derived extracellular vesicles: Current findings, challenges, and future applications

Nader Kameli, Anya Dragojlovic‐kerkache, Paul Savelkoul, Frank R. Stassen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, plant‐derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) have gained the interest of many experts in fields such as microbiology and immunology, and research in this field has expo-nentially increased. These nano‐sized particles have provided researchers with a number of inter-esting findings, making their application in human health and disease very promising. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that PDEVs can exhibit a multitude of effects, suggesting that these vesicles may have many potential future applications, including therapeutics and nano‐deliv-ery of compounds. While the preliminary results are promising, there are still some challenges to face, such as a lack of protocol standardization, as well as knowledge gaps that need to be filled. This review aims to discuss various aspects of PDEV knowledge, including their preliminary find-ings, challenges, and future uses, giving insight into the complexity of conducting research in this field.
Original languageEnglish
Article number411
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Immunomodulatory effects
  • Intestinal homeostasis
  • Plant EVs
  • Therapeutic applications

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