Children with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (PHIV) are growing into adulthood with HIV and treatment-associated comorbidities, such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. HIV is identified as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The hypothesis behind increased CVD risk associated with HIV includes vascular inflammation, dyslipidemia and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) metabolomic toxicity. To investigate differences in lipid profiles and pathophysiological mechanisms of CVD risk in adolescents with PHIV, we compared the plasma lipidome of PHIV adolescents and HIV-negative controls. We additionally investigated the influence of current cART regimens and increased lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels on the plasma lipidome. We included 20 PHIV-infected adolescents and 20 HIV-negative controls matched for age, sex, ethnic origin and socio-economic status. Plasma lipidome was measured using Thermo Scientific Ultimate 3000 binary high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–mass spectrometry. We evaluated the plasma lipidome in PHIV adolescents using different cART regimens (including those known to be associated with lipid alterations). The median age was 17.5 years (15.5–20.7) and 16.5 years (15.7–19.8) for PHIV adolescents and controls, respectively. Of PHIV adolescents, 45% used a non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based (25%) or protease inhibitor (PI)-based (20%) cART regimen. In this pilot study, we observed no significant differences between lipidomic profiles between PHIV adolescents and controls. We observed no differences in the plasma lipidome in participants with increased versus normal Lp(a) levels. Different cART regimens appear to influence chain length differences in the plasma lipidome of PHIV adolescents; however, the significance and causality of this observation remains undetermined. Further research on the influence of cART on lipid composition could further identify these alterations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number580
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • cardiovascular disease
  • combination antiretroviral therapy
  • human immunodeficiency virus
  • lipid profiles
  • lipidomics

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