Potential benefits of routine cystoscopy and vaginoscopy prior to reconstructive surgery in patients with an anorectal malformation

Cunera M. C. de Beaufort, Daphne T. Boom, Tara M. Mackay, Judith J. M. L. Dekker, Olga E. Arguedas Flores, Justin R. de Jong, Caroline F. Kuijper, Ramon R. Gorter

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Purpose: First, to assess the number of patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) in whom additional urological and/or gynecological anomalies were identified through routine screening with cysto- or vaginoscopy prior to reconstructive surgery. Second, to assess potential procedure-related complications. Methods: Retrospective mono-center cohort study, including all ARM patients born between January 2019 and December 2022. Routine screening consisted of cystoscopy for male patients, with the addition of vaginoscopy for female patients. Chi-square was used to compare the screening percentages over time. Results: In total, 38 patients were included, of whom 27 (71.1%) underwent cystoscopy ± vaginoscopy, without the occurrence of complications. Nine of 13 females (69.2%) underwent cysto- and vaginoscopy and 18 of 25 males (72.0%) underwent a cystoscopy. The percentage of patients that underwent these procedures improved over the 2 time periods (50.0% in 2019–2020 vs 90.0% in 2021–2022, p = 0.011). In 15 of 27 patients (55.6%) that underwent cystoscopy ± vaginoscopy, additional anomalies were found that were not identified through physical examination or US-kidney. Conclusions: In 56% of the patients that underwent cysto- ± vaginoscopy, additional anomalies were identified that were not with imaging studies or physical examination. This study emphasizes the potential benefit of routine cysto- and vaginoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of children with ARM. Level of Evidence: III.
Original languageEnglish
Article number284
JournalPediatric surgery international
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Anorectal malformations
  • Cystoscopy
  • Gynecological anomalies
  • Screening
  • Urological anomalies
  • Vaginoscopy

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