Objectives. To assess the safety and efficacy of pre-emptive treatment of optical coherence tomography- (OCT-) derived vulnerable, non-flow-limiting, non-culprit lesions in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Background. Intracoronary imaging with OCT can aid in the decision to treat non-flow-limiting lesions by identifying vulnerable plaques. Pre-emptive treatment of these lesions might improve patient outcome by "sealing"these plaques. Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) have theoretical benefit for this treatment because they dissolve completely over time. Methods. In patients presenting with MI, non-culprit lesions with a fractional flow reserve ≥0.8 were imaged with OCT. Vulnerable plaques were randomised to either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) placement or optimal medicinal therapy (OMT). The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, and unplanned revascularisation at 1-year follow-up. Results. The trial was stopped prematurely after retraction from the market of the Absorb BVS. At that time, a total of 34 patients were randomised. At two years, the composite endpoint occurred 3 times (18.8%) in the BVS group and 1 time (6.3%) in the OMT group. Apart from one elective PCI for stable angina in the OMT group, no target lesions in any group were revascularised. Conclusions. Pre-emptive stenting of vulnerable plaques had no evident benefit compared to conservative treatment. However, due to the low number of included patients, no definite conclusions could be drawn. Identifying and potentially treating vulnerable plaques remains an important target for future research. This trial is registered under https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/NL4177 on 08-12-2015.