Many patients with acute respiratory failure fulfill the diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), forming a very heterogeneous population. Clinical trials have not yielded beneficial treatment effects in ARDS, possibly caused by this heterogeneity. Dividing patients with ARDS into subgroups, each with similar characteristics, may result in improved treatment strategies as part of a precision medicine approach. In this systematic review, we summarize the subphenotypes identified so far, the current state, and future directions for precision medicine in ARDS. Multiple data-driven subphenotypes have been identified based on a wide range of variables. These subphenotypes are associated with differences in clinical outcomes, which could be used for prognostic-and predictive enrichment of future interventional studies. True treatable traits have not been identified yet, deeper phenotyping will hopefully reveal these along with mechanistic differences.
- Precision medicine