Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in psychiatric disorders: an umbrella review with meta-analysis of 245 observational studies from 32 systematic reviews

Nanna Lindekilde, Stine H. Scheuer, Femke Rutters, Lenette Knudsen, Mathias Lasgaard, Katrine H. Rubin, Jan Erik Henriksen, Mika Kivimäki, Gregers S. Andersen, Frans Pouwer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Aims/hypothesis: Estimates of the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes vary between 6% and 9%. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been investigated in psychiatric populations but a critical appraisal of the existing evidence is lacking, and an overview is needed. This umbrella review summarises existing systematic reviews of observational studies investigating the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in people with a psychiatric disorder. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 17 January 2021 and screened reference lists of included systematic reviews. On the basis of prespecified criteria, we included systematic reviews investigating the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adults (aged ≥18 years) with a psychiatric disorder. Titles and abstracts of 5155 identified records and full texts of 431 selected studies were screened by two independent reviewers, based on predefined eligibility criteria and an a priori developed extraction form, following the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed with the ROBIS instrument. Data extracted from primary studies were synthesised using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: A total of 32 systematic reviews with 245 unique primary studies were identified and met inclusion criteria. Twelve had low risk of bias. They reported type 2 diabetes prevalence estimates ranging from 5% to 22% depending on the specific psychiatric disorder. We meta-analysed data for ten categories of psychiatric disorders and found the following prevalence estimates of type 2 diabetes: in people with a sleep disorder: 40%; binge eating disorder: 21%; substance use disorder: 16%; anxiety disorder: 14%; bipolar disorder: 11%; psychosis: 11%; schizophrenia: 10%; a mixed group of psychiatric disorders: 10%; depression: 9%; and in people with an intellectual disability 8%. All meta-analyses revealed high levels of heterogeneity. Conclusions/interpretation: Type 2 diabetes is a common comorbidity in people with a psychiatric disorder. Future research should investigate whether routine screening for type 2 diabetes and subsequent prevention initiatives for these people are warranted. PROSPERO registration no. CRD42020159870.
Original languageEnglish
Early online date2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2021


  • Meta-analysis
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric disorders
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Umbrella review

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