Prevalence, pattern and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion in an elderly population in Nepal: The Bhaktapur retina study

Raba Thapa, Sanyam Bajimaya, Govinda Paudyal, Shankar Khanal, Stevie Tan, Suman S. Thapa, Ger Van Rens

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Background: This study aims to explore the prevalence, pattern and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in an elderly population of Nepal. Method: One thousand eight hundred sixty subjects of age 60 years and above were enrolled in a population-based, cross-sectional study. Detailed history, visual acuity, anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done. Blood pressure, non-fasting blood sugar, body mass index and abdominal girth were measured. Retinal vein occlusions were further divided into branch retinal (BRVO), hemi-retinal and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Result: Age ranged from 60 to 95 years with a mean of 69.64 ± 7.31 years. Overall population prevalence for RVO was 2.95% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 2.23-3.83), BRVO 2.74% (95% CI: 2.05-3.58) and CRVO 0.21% (95% CI: 0.06-0.55). BRVO was seen in 51 subjects (92.73%) and CRVO in 4 (7.27%). Among the total RVO, unilateral and bilateral involvement was 85.45% and 14.55%, respectively. Among the subjects with BRVO and CRVO, 37.25% and 50% had low vision, respectively. The risk of RVO increased with ageing and was more among males. There was an increased risk of RVO among those with hypertension, and with diabetes and hypertension. There was also an increased risk of RVO among subjects with hypermetropia, those with pseudophakia and those who were smokers and consumed alcohol. Conclusion: Retinal vein occlusion is a common retinal vascular disorder in the elderly population of Nepal. The main risk factors for RVO were increasing age and hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162
JournalBMC Ophthalmology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2017


  • Branch retinal vein occlusion
  • Central retinal vein occlusion
  • Nepal
  • Prevalence
  • Retinal vein occlusion
  • Risk factors

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