Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of (early) response measurements using [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) with respect to survival of patients with stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing induction chemotherapy (IC), with a comparative analysis of PET methods. Patients and Methods: In a prospective multicenter study, PET was performed in patients before IC and after one and three cycles. Computed tomography (CT) was performed before and after IC. Glucose consumption (metabolic rate of glucose [MRglu]) was measured using Patlak graphical analysis and correlated with simplified methods. Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) status was assessed visually. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to determine the prognostic relevance of CT and PET measures of response with respect to survival. Results: Complete PET data sets were available in 47 patients. Median survival was 21 months. MLN status after IC by PET predicted survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.33; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.22; P = .04) in contrast with CT (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.30; P = .14). Residual MRglu after IC proved to be the best prognostic factor (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.97; P = .002). Multivariate stepwise analysis showed that PET identified prognostically different strata in patients considered responsive according to CT. Residual MRglu after one cycle selected patients with different outcomes (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.52; P = .01). Simplified quantitative 18FDG PET methods were correlated with Patlak graphical analysis during and after therapy (r ≥ 0.90). Conclusion: 18FDG PET has additional value over CT in monitoring response to IC in patients with stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC, and it seems feasible to predict survival early during IC. Simple semiquantitative and complex PET methods perform equally well.