Prolonged mechanical ventilation induces cell cycle arrest in newborn rat lung

A.A. Kroon, J. Wang, B. Kavanagh, Z. Huang, M. Kuliszewski, J.B. van Goudoever, M. Post

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Abstract

The molecular mechanism(s) by which mechanical ventilation disrupts alveolar development, a hallmark of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is unknown. To determine the effect of 24 h of mechanical ventilation on lung cell cycle regulators, cell proliferation and alveolar formation in newborn rats. Seven-day old rats were ventilated with room air for 8, 12 and 24 h using relatively moderate tidal volumes (8.5 mL.kg⁻¹). Ventilation for 24 h (h) decreased the number of elastin-positive secondary crests and increased the mean linear intercept, indicating arrest of alveolar development. Proliferation (assessed by BrdU incorporation) was halved after 12 h of ventilation and completely arrested after 24 h. Cyclin D1 and E1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased after 8-24 h of ventilation, while that of p27(Kip1) was significantly increased. Mechanical ventilation for 24 h also increased levels of p57(Kip2), decreased that of p16(INK4a), while the levels of p21(Waf/Cip1) and p15(INK4b) were unchanged. Increased p27(Kip1) expression coincided with reduced phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) at Thr¹⁵⁷, Thr¹⁸⁷ and Thr¹⁹⁸ (p<0.05), thereby promoting its nuclear localization. Similar -but more rapid- changes in cell cycle regulators were noted when 7-day rats were ventilated with high tidal volume (40 mL.kg⁻¹) and when fetal lung epithelial cells were subjected to a continuous (17% elongation) cyclic stretch. This is the first demonstration that prolonged (24 h) of mechanical ventilation causes cell cycle arrest in newborn rat lungs; the arrest occurs in G₁ and is caused by increased expression and nuclear localization of Cdk inhibitor proteins (p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2)) from the Kip family
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere16910
Pages (from-to)e16910
Number of pages12
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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