Prospective Evaluation of Sleep Apnea as Manifestation of Heart Failure in Children

Susanna L. den Boer, Koen F. M. Joosten, Sandra van den Berg, Ad P. C. M. Backx, Ronald B. Tanke, Gideon J. du Marchie Sarvaas, Willem A. Helbing, Lukas A. J. Rammeloo, Arend D. J. ten Harkel, Gabriëlle G. van Iperen, Michiel Dalinghaus

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Abstract

In adults with heart failure, central sleep apnea (CSA), often manifested as Cheyne-Stokes respiration, is common, and has been associated with adverse outcome. Heart failure in children is commonly caused by dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It is unknown whether children with heart failure secondary to DCM have CSA, and whether CSA is related to the severity of heart failure. In this prospective observational study, 37 patients ( <18 year) with heart failure secondary to DCM were included. They underwent polysomnography, clinical and laboratory evaluation and echocardiographic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 2 years, eight patients underwent heart transplantation. CSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥1) was found in 19 % of the patients. AHI ranged from 1.2 to 4.5/h. The occurrence of CSA was not related to the severity of heart failure. Three older patients showed a breathing pattern mimicking Cheyne-Stokes respiration, two of whom required heart transplantation. CSA was found in 19 % of the children with heart failure secondary to DCM. No relation was found with the severity of heart failure. In a small subset of children with severe DCM, a pattern mimicking Cheyne-Stokes respiration was registered
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)248-254
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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