Cerebral metabolites of a patient with linear nevus sebaceus syndrome and hemimegalencephaly were determined at 18 and 30 months of age by localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Clinically, the patient suffered from hemiparesis and epileptic seizures. At 18 months of age, spectroscopy of the enlarged hemisphere revealed decreased N-acetylaspartate mainly in parietal white matter relative to the unaffected hemisphere. One year later, white matter studies indicated both reduced N-acetylaspartate and elevated myoinositol. In insular gray matter the previously normal concentrations of creatine, choline-containing compounds, myoinositol, and glutamine were increased. The findings are consistent with mild neuroaxonal loss or damage (white matter) and glial proliferation (cortical gray and white matter) of the affected hemisphere. The metabolic disturbances indicate disease progression but are less pronounced than in older patients with hemimegalencephaly.